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Austempering and Martempering in metallurgy \ Graphes, Temperatures, Processes, Advantages and Disadvantages. Martempering and Austempering. of steel. September Steel can be heat treated to high hardness and strength levels for getting the. Austempering is a heat treating process for medium-to-high carbon ferrous metals which produces a Austempering is a hardening process for metals which yields desirable mechanical properties including: Martempering/ Marquenching.

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Some processes feature quenching and then removal from the quench media, then holding in a furnace. Electro-slag remelting Vacuum arc remelting Argon oxygen decarburization. I am looking into Steel Tempering and was wondering what sites to look at and how to learn more.


The existence of the retained austenite in the microstructure of this steel led to some drawbacks. Unfavorable dimensional variations appear in the specimens resulting from the transformation of austenite to martensite during tempering or upon severe impacts applied to the liners during milling process.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. For example, they may be produced as-cast or air cooled with the proper alloy content. Articles needing additional references from January All articles needing additional references Articles using small message boxes Articles needing more viewpoints from January This means that the section must be cooled fast enough to avoid the formation of pearlite.

In austempering the heat treat load is quenched to a temperature which is typically above the Martensite start of the austenite and held. The samples which were annealed have fewer carbides with massive pearlite compared to remaining samples and as such it is least hard as the carbides are retained in solution.

From the present study the following conclusions are drawn. Due to their high applicability, these processes are explored by many researchers. Thin sections can be cooled faster than the bulky sections. Dry sliding test is conducted on pin disc apparatus against EN32 steel disc having hardness of Hv to measure coefficient of friction based on standard ASTM G Chandler, Heat Treater’s Guide: The most common practice is to quench into a bath of liquid nitrite-nitrate salt and hold in the bath.


In steel it produces a bainite microstructure whereas in cast irons it produces a structure of acicular ferrite and high carbon, stabilized austenite known as ausferrite.

Effect of Austempering and Martempering on the Properties of AISI Steel

Smelting Bloomery produces sponge iron Blast furnace produces pig iron Cold blast Hot blast Anthracite iron Direct reduced iron. Annealing Low hydrogen Short circuit. Iron and steel production. This page was last edited on 9 Augustat Similarly, tools such as dies, knives, cutting devices, and martsmpering devices need a hardened structure to auste,pering wear and deformation. Success in martempering is based on a knowledge of the transformation characteristics TTT curves of the steel being considered.

The effect of microstructure on the wear performance of martemperibg steel showed that the white layer and overtempered martensite OTM had a higher wear resistance than martensite. Martempering is also known as stepped quenching or interrupted quenching. This is a fine discusssion and can give better results and ideas.

Metallurgical transformations can be induced to ADI when high mechanical stress is applied.

In this process, Austenite is transformed to martensite by step quenchingat a rate fast enough to avoid the formation of ferritepearlite or bainite. This page was last edited on 9 Augustat The structure of the martempered sample Figure 1 b is completely covered with carbides and has a very rich density of these all over the surface.

The wear mechanism dependence on the surface hardness was attributed to this increase in wear performance.

The bar graph clearly indicates that the most effected pin is annealed when compared to all the pins and the least effected is martempered. Steels can be heat treated to high hardness and strength levels.


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Alloy steels generally are more adaptable than carbon steels to martempering. Martempering and Austempering of steel.

International Scholarly Research Notices

January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Wear resistance of the material was reduced as a result of the presence of phase with low hardness and strength.

Pattern welding Damascus steel Crucible steel Tatara furnace Cementation process.

Jetley [ 10 ] reported improvement in wear properties of aircraft brake steel rotors by martempering. The exact boundaries of the austenite phase region depend on the chemistry of the alloy being heat treated. In such cases, to achieve the auxtempering properties heat treatment methods are commonly used.

Table 1 compares the properties obtained in steel by martempering and tempering with those obtained by conventional quenching and tempering. The two processes are heating a medium-to-high carbon ferrous metal to an austenitic condition then cooling the object rapidly enough to avoid the formation of pearlite to a temperature above temperature and isothermally holding the part for a time sufficient to produce the desired microstructure.

The amount of retained austenite in Cr-Mo steels used in mill liner was studied by Shaeri et al. Steel and Cast Iron. Also this suggests that the material was more ductile than that of the remaining samples. For instance, AISI is a high carbon alloy steel which achieves a high degree of hardness with compressive strength and abrasion resistance used in ball and roller bearings, spinning tools, punches, and dies. No tempering is required after austempering if the part is through hardened and fully transformed to either Bainite or ausferrite.