“Your brain does not manufacture thoughts. Your thoughts shape neural networks.”

Neural networks mirror the conduct of the human mind. It permits computer projects to perceive designs and tackle normal issues in the fields of AI, machine learning, and deep learning. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) or Simulated Neural Networks (SNNs) are some other names of Neural Networks. It is a subset of machine learning. This is the heart and brain of Deep Learning algorithms. Its name and structure are similar to the working of biological neurons in the human brain. It consists of node layers, hidden layers, and an output layer. If it has more than one hidden layer then it comes under a deep neural network.

Each artificial neuron or node connects to another node. Every node associates with threshold and weight. The node activates when the output of any individual node is above the specified threshold value. Finally, it results in sending the data to the next layer of the network. Otherwise, data does not pass to the further layer of the network. To improve the accuracy of the neural networks we have to provide training data for their learning. As a result, it will improve their accuracy over time. Nonetheless, when these learning calculations adjust for exactness. Then it becomes a powerful asset in artificial intelligence and computer science. It permits us to cluster the data and classify it at a high speed. The manual identification by human experts on the tasks like speech recognition or image recognition. Similarly, when the same tasks are complete with the help of neural networks we can see the difference of minutes or even hours.

**Working of Neural Networks**

When the networks prepare themselves with sufficient learning models, it arrives at a point where you can give it an altogether new arrangement of sources of info it is never seen and perceive how it reacts. For instance, assume you have been showing a network dataset of pictures of seats and tables, addressed in some fitting way it can comprehend, and telling it whether it is a seat or a table. After showing it, suppose, 25 unique seats and 25 distinct tables, you feed it an image of some new design it does not experience previously—suppose a chaise longue—and see what occurs. Contingent upon how you have prepared it, it will endeavor to arrange the new model as either a seat or a table, summing up based on its experience—very much like a human. Voila, you have taught a computer how to differentiate or recognize furniture! That does not intend to say a neural network can just “look” at household items and immediately react to them in significant ways; it is not acting as an individual.

#### Understanding with the help of an Example

Consider the model we have quite recently given: the network is not checking out household items. The contributions to a network are in the form of paired numbers: each information unit is either turned on or turned off. So on the off chance that you had five information units, you could take care of in data around five distinct qualities of various seats utilizing twofold (yes/no) replies. The inquiries may be 1) Does it have a back? 2) Does it have a top? 3) Does it have delicate upholstery? 4) Can you sit on it serenely for significant periods? 5) Can you put bunches of things on top of it? A normal chair would then present as Yes, No, Yes, Yes, No, or 10110 in parallel, while a normal table may be present as No, Yes, No, No, Yes, or 01001. Thus, during the learning stage, the network is just taking a gander at bunches of numbers like 10110 and 01001 and discovering that some mean seat (which may be a yield of 1) while others mean table (a yield of 0).

**Creating a Neural Network with Python**

**Create a Neural Network Class**

We will make a NeuralNetwork class in Python to prepare the neuron to give an exact forecast. The class will likewise have other functions. Even though we will not utilize a neural network library for this basic neural network model, we will import the NumPy library to help with the estimations. The library accompanies the accompanying four significant techniques:

- Exp — To generate the normal exponential
- Array —To generate a matrix
- Dot — To multiply matrices
- Random — To generate random numbers. Note that we will seed the random numbers to guarantee their efficient distribution.

**Use Sigmoid Function**

We will utilize the Sigmoid function, which draws an “S”- shaped curve, as an actuation function to the neural network. This function maps any value from 0 to 1. It will help us to standardize the weighted sum of inputs. From that point, we will calculate the derivative of the Sigmoid function. That will help in calculating the important changes in weights. The output of a Sigmoid function is mostly utilized to produce its derivative. For instance, assuming the output variable is “x”. Accordingly, its derivative will be x * (1-x).

**Train the model**

This is the stage where we will train the neural network to make accurate predictions. Each info will have a weight—either positive or negative. Furthermore, this infers that information having a major number of positive weight or a major number of negative weight will impact the resultant output more. Recall that we at first started by apportioning each weight to a random number. Here are the steps for the training procedure we utilized in this neural network model:

- We got the input from the training dataset. Then we performed some changes on the weights and siphoned them utilizing a strategy that processed the output of the ANN.
- We figured the back-propagated error rate. For this situation, it is the distinction between the neuron’s anticipated output and the expected output of the training dataset.
- Because of the degree of the error we got, we performed out some minor weight changes utilizing the Error Weighted Derivative formula.
- We have to iterate this cycle several times. In each iteration, the entire training set processes at the same time.

**Applications of Neural Network**

- Spell Checking
- Character Recognition
- Speech Recognition
- Machine Translation
- Language Generation and Multi-document Summarization
- Paraphrase Detection
- Semantic Parsing and Question Answering
- Part-of-Speech Tagging
- Named Entity Recognition
- Text Classification and Categorization

**What did we learn?**

Neural networks are helpful as a function approximator, to accomplish a more broad knowledge and many more. They can use it with other AI strategies to perform more perplexing assignments. For instance, deep reinforcement learning inserts neural networks inside a reinforcement learning framework, where they map activities to rewards to accomplish objectives. Deepmind’s triumphs in computer games and the board game of go are genuine models. To summarize, in this article we dived into what a neural network is. We also understand the working of neural networks. We learned how to create a neural network with the help of python. At last, we took a close look at different applications of neural networks.

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